Indeterminable Frames

A digital humanities + film and media studies project re-examining the moving image.





Works Cited

Works Cited

Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” In Illuminations, 219-253. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1968.

Davis, Douglas. 1995. “The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Reproduction (An Evolving Thesis: 1991-1995).” Leonardo 28 (5): 381–86. in a new tab).

Drucker, Johanna. “Humanities Approaches to Graphical Display.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 5, no. 1 (2011). in a new tab).

Ferguson, Kevin L. “Volumetric Cinema.” Journal of Videographic Film & Moving Image Studies, [in]Transition, 2, no. 1 (2015). in a new tab).

Kattelle, Alan. “Chapter One: The Ancestry of the Motion Picture.” In Home Movies: A History of the American Industry, 1897-1979, First Edition., 1–21. Nashua, New Hampshire: Transition Publishing, 2000.

Rodriguez, Dave. 2020. “More than Access: Audiovisual Collections and Transformative Digital Scholarship.” Presentation at the 2020 Association of Moving Image Archivists Conference, Online, November 19.

Samuels, Lisa, and Jerome McGann. “Deformance and Interpretation.” New Literary History 30, no. 1 (1999): 25–56.

Youngblood, Gene. 2020. “The Aesthetic Machine.” In Expanded Cinema, 50th Anniversary Edition, 189–93. New York, NY: Fordham University Press.

Films Cited

Belson, Jordan. Chakra, 1972.

Frampton, Hollis. (nostalgia), 1971.

Gottheim, Larry. Fog Line, 1970.

Lee, Rox. Juan Gapang (Johnny Crawl), 1987.

O'Neill, Pat. 7362, 1967.

Sharits, Paul. Bad Burns, 1982.


The films as captasets used in this project were generated from DVDs featuring the moving image works or sourced from my own non-circulating collection, as these are the best copies available for research. The resulting files were used only for the purpose of this project.

The use of the works constitutes fair use and passes the four factors of the "fair use test" as defined by Section 107 of the Copyright Act and by the U.S. Copyright Office(opens in a new tab): purpose, nature, amount, and effect.

Additional Resources

Dave Rodriguez's Particles in Space and Colors of Ozu(opens in a new tab)

FFmpeg Bug Tracker and Wiki(opens in a new tab)

ffmprovisr(opens in a new tab)

Image Macroanalysis in Javascript (IMJ) by Zach Whalen(opens in a new tab)

ImagePlot for ImageJ(opens in a new tab) by the Software Studies Initiative


This project was created by Patricia Ledesma Villon for Professor Miriam Posner's Winter 2021 graduate-level DH 201: Introduction to Digital Humanities(opens in a new tab) class at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Send comments, questions, or feedback to pvillon [at] ucla [dot] edu or follow Patricia on Twitter at @ptvln(opens in a new tab).

(Note: As of July 2021, I aim to have the images here be IIIF(opens in a new tab)-compliant. More soon, one day.)

Accessibility Statement

This website conforms to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0(opens in a new tab) and was evaluated using the web accessibility evaluation tool WAVE(opens in a new tab). I welcome your feedback on the accessibility of this website.

Hosted on GitHub Pages. Theme by orderedlist(opens in a new tab).